દુર્યોધન: આવૃત્તિઓ વચ્ચેનો તફાવત

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[[Imageચિત્ર:Kondadakuli.jpg|right|thumb|દુર્યોધન as depicted in [[Yakshagana]] popular drama from [[Karnataka]]]]
'''દુર્યોધન'''(સંસ્કૃત: दुर्योधन) હસ્તિનાપુર નરેશ [[ધૃતરાષ્ટ્ર]] તથા [[ગાંધારી]]નો સૌથી મોટો પુત્ર તથા [[દુસાશન]]નો મોટો ભાઇ હતો.
 
In the [[Hindu]] [[Indian epic poetry|epic]] the [[Mahābhārata]], '''Duryodhana''' () is the eldest son of the blind king [[Dhritarashtra]] by Queen [[Gandhari (character)|Gandhari]], the eldest of the one hundred [[Kaurava]] brothers, and the chief antagonist of the [[Pandavas]]. He was an [[avatar]] of the demon [[Kali (Demon)|Kali]] who had bewitched the soul of [[Nala]], forcing him to gamble away his kingdom.
 
== જન્મ ==
 
When Dhritarashtra's queen [[Gandhari]]'s pregnancy continued for an unusually long period of time, she beat her womb in frustration, at the envy of [[Kunti]], the queen of [[Pandu]] who had given birth to [[Yudhisthira]], the eldest [[Pandava]]. Due to actions of Gandhari, a hardened mass of grey-colored flesh produced from her womb. Gandhari was very shocked and upset.She worshiped [[Vyasa]],the great sage who had blessed her with one hundred sons,to redeem his words.
 
 
=== વિકાસ ===
 
Duryodhana's body is said to be made out of thunder, and he is extremely powerful. He is revered by his younger brothers, especially [[Dushasana]]. Learning martial skills from his gurus, [[Kripa]], [[Drona]] and [[Balarama]], he was extremely powerful with the [[Mace (club)|mace]] weapon, and the equal of [[Bhima]], the powerful Pandava in its use
 
=== કર્મ ===
 
At the martial exhibition where the Kaurava and Pandava princes demonstrate their skills before their elders, their guru [[Drona]] and the people of the kingdom, a great and effulgent warrior, [[Karna]] appears and challenges [[Arjuna]], who is considered by Drona to be the best of the warrior princes. But Karna is humiliated when [[Kripa]] asks him to ascertain his [[caste]], as it would be inappropriate for unequals to compete.
In the [[Kurukshetra War]], [[Karna]] is Duryodhana's greatest hope for victory. He earnestly believes that Karna is superior to [[Arjuna]], and will inevitably destroy him and his four brothers. While devoted to Duryodhana, [[Karna]] knows that even though his skills are as good as, if not better than [[Arjuna]]'s, he is incapable of killing [[Arjuna]] as he is protected by Lord [[Krishna]]. When [[Karna]] is killed, દુર્યોધન mourns his death intensely.
 
== Evil tendencies and schemes ==
[[Imageચિત્ર:Duryodana-kl.jpg|thumb|દુર્યોધન in Javanese [[Wayang]]]]
 
Although loved by all his family, દુર્યોધનand most of his brothers are seen as inferior to the [[Pandavas]] in their adherence to virtue and duty, and respect of elders. દુર્યોધન is mentored by his maternal uncle [[Shakuni]], who desires the elevation of his sister's children at the expense of the [[Pandavas]]. Shakuni masterminds most of Duryodhana's plots to humiliate and kill the Pandavas.
દુર્યોધન attempts to murder Bhima by feeding him a poisoned feast, but Bhima survives due to his immense physical capacity and blessings from celestial [[Naga (mythology)|Nagas]]. દુર્યોધન then plots with his evil counselor ''Purochana'' to set ablaze a house where the Pandavas were staying. Purochana is himself killed in the fire, but the Pandavas manage to escape.
 
== રાજ્ય પચાવી પાડવું ==
 
When the princes come of age, [[Yudhisthira]] is given half the kingdom and made king of [[Indraprastha]], so as to avoid a clash with the Kaurava princes over the whole Kuru kingdom. દુર્યોધન becomes the prince regent of Hastinapura, and owing to the age and blindness of his father, he accumulates much control and influence, managing the state affairs himself with a coterie of his advisors that include his uncle [[Shakuni]], brother [[Dushasana]] and friend [[Karna]].
But દુર્યોધન remains jealous of Yudhisthira, owing to Indraprastha's prosperity and fame exceeding Hastinapura's. When Yudhisthira performs the ''Rajasuya'' sacrifice that makes him emperor of the World, દુર્યોધન is unable to contain his anger, which is intensified when Yudhisthira's queen [[Draupadi]] makes fun of him when he slips into a pool of water in the court.
 
=== ધૃતક્રિડા અને દ્રૌપદી ચીરહરણ ===
 
Knowing that the Kauravas cannot rival the Pandavas in martial power, [[Shakuni]] devises a scheme to rob Yudhisthira of his kingdom and wealth by defeating him in a game of dice, which Shakuni is an expert at and Yudhisthira a complete novice. Unable to resist the challenge, Yudhisthira gambles away his entire kingdom, his wealth, his four brothers and even his wife, in a series of gambits to retrieve one by staking another.
Nevertheless, due to this action [[Bhima]] swears that at the end of the exile, he would break Duryodhana's thigh (as દુર્યોધનasked Draupadi to sit on his thigh).
 
=== દિગ્વિજય ===
 
During the exile, દુર્યોધન attempts to humiliate Yudhisthira by flashing his wealth and prowess in their forest of exile. He is however caught in a conflict with the Gandharva king Chitrasena, who captures him. Yudhisthira asks Arjuna and Bhima to rescue Duryodhana, who is humiliated. Setting his mind to die, દુર્યોધન pledges to fast unto death.
[[Karna]] now embarks upon a worldwide military campaign to subjugate kings and impose Duryodhana's imperial authority over them. Bringing tribute and allegiance from all the world's kings, Karna helps દુર્યોધન perform the ''Vaishnava'' sacrifice to please [[Vishnu]], and crowns himself World emperor, as Yudhisthira did with the ''Rajasuya''.
 
== કુરુક્ષેત્ર યુદ્ધ ==
 
At the end of the exile term, દુર્યોધન refuses to return Yudhisthira's kingdom, despite the counsel of Bhishma, Drona, Vidura and even [[Krishna]], whom he attempted to kidnap. Although Dhritarashtra criticizes his son, he tacitly desires that Duryodhana, and not Yudhishitra remain Emperor.
Duryodhana's hopes are finally shattered when Karna is killed by Arjuna after an intense and legendary battle. After making some final desperate efforts, he flees the battlefield and hides in a lake, within which he survives by his mystic powers of [[yoga]]. He re-emerges after [[Ashwathama]] and [[Kripa]] encourage him to face his destiny with courage.
 
== ભીમ સાથી દ્વંદ્વ યુદ્ધ અને ગાંધારીના આશીર્વાદ ==
 
Queen Gandhari is distraught when she hears that all her sons save દુર્યોધન have been slain. Despite knowing that દુર્યોધન was wicked and his cause unrighteous, she decides to help him win. Asking him to bathe and enter her tent naked, she prepares to use the great mystic power of her eyes, blind-folded for many years out of respect for her blind husband, to make his body invincible to all attack in every portion.
Although દુર્યોધન bemoans that he was slain by unfair means, given that it was illegal to attack below the waist according to the rules of mace-fighting, Krishna points out to the dying prince that his humiliation of Draupadi, murder plots and cheating of the Pandavas and the killing of Abhimanyu did not comply with [[dharma]] or the norms of battle either. It was useless thus, for દુર્યોધન to hope that religious values would protect him, when he had honored them not once in his whole life.
 
=== સ્વર્ગવાસ ===
 
દુર્યોધન dies slowly, and is cremated by the Pandavas. When [[Yudhisthira]] himself ascends to [[Swarga]], he sees દુર્યોધન there upon a throne. He is angry that દુર્યોધન is enjoying a place in heaven despite his sins, but [[Indra]] explains to him that he had served his time in hell, and had also been a good and powerful king.
 
== અન્ય મતો ==
 
The moderate view of Hindu scholars is that દુર્યોધન was a powerful and capable king who governed his subjects fairly, but was devious and wicked in his plots against his brothers. He is condemned for attempting to humiliate Draupadi out of pride and blatant disregard for traditions. Like [[Ravana]], દુર્યોધન was powerful and glorious, and well-versed in religious knowledge, but fails to adhere to those values in practical life. But most Hindus regard દુર્યોધન as blatantly evil.
In [[Kumaon]] region of [[Uttranchal]], several beautifully carved temples are dedicated to દુર્યોધન and he is worshipped as a minor deity. The mountain tribes of Kumaon fought along with દુર્યોધન armies in the Mahābhārata war; he was venerated as a capable and generous administrator.
 
=== પ્રસાર માધ્યમોમાં ===
 
In the ''Mahābhārata'' television series of the late 1980s in [[India]], Duryodhana's character is played by [[Punjabi people|Punjabi]] actor [[Puneet Issar]].
The ''humiliation of Draupadi'' is a section of the Mahābhārata often re-created and interpreted in Indian drama and theatre.
 
== કડિઓ ==
*''The Mahabharata'' (1999) by [[Krishna Dharma]]
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[[Categoryશ્રેણી:પૌરાણિક પાત્રો]]
 
[[Category:પૌરાણિક પાત્રો]]
 
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