as depicted in [[ Yakshagana]] popular drama from [[Karnataka]]]]
'''દુર્યોધન'''(સંસ્કૃત: दुर्योधन) હસ્તિનાપુર નરેશ [[ધૃતરાષ્ટ્ર]] તથા [[ગાંધારી]]નો સૌથી મોટો પુત્ર તથા [[દુસાશન]]નો મોટો ભાઇ હતો.
In the [[Hindu]] [[Indian epic poetry|epic]] the [[Mahābhārata]], '''Duryodhana''' () is the eldest son of the blind king [[Dhritarashtra]] by Queen [[Gandhari (character)|Gandhari]], the eldest of the one hundred [[Kaurava]] brothers, and the chief antagonist of the [[Pandavas]]. He was an [[avatar]] of the demon [[Kali (Demon)|Kali]] who had bewitched the soul of [[Nala]], forcing him to gamble away his kingdom.
== જન્મ ==
When Dhritarashtra's queen [[Gandhari]]'s pregnancy continued for an unusually long period of time, she beat her womb in frustration, at the envy of [[Kunti]], the queen of [[Pandu]] who had given birth to [[Yudhisthira]], the eldest [[Pandava]]. Due to actions of Gandhari, a hardened mass of grey-colored flesh produced from her womb. Gandhari was very shocked and upset.She worshiped [[Vyasa]],the great sage who had blessed her with one hundred sons,to redeem his words.
Vyasa divides the flesh ball into one hundred and one equal pieces, and puts them in pots of [[ghee]], which are sealed and buried into the earth for one year. At the end of the year, the first pot is opened, and દુર્યોધન emerges.
Literally, દુર્યોધન means ''"hard to conquer"''. His chariot bore a flag depicting a
=== વિકાસ ===
Duryodhana's body is said to be made out of thunder, and he is extremely powerful. He is revered by his younger brothers, especially [[Dushasana]]. Learning martial skills from his gurus, [[Kripa]], [[Drona]] and [[Balarama]], he was extremely powerful with the [[Mace (club)|mace]] weapon, and the equal of [[Bhima]], the powerful Pandava in its use
=== કર્મ ===
At the martial exhibition where the Kaurava and Pandava princes demonstrate their skills before their elders, their guru [[Drona]] and the people of the kingdom, a great and effulgent warrior, [[Karna]] appears and challenges [[Arjuna]], who is considered by Drona to be the best of the warrior princes. But Karna is humiliated when [[Kripa]] asks him to ascertain his [[caste]], as it would be inappropriate for unequals to compete.
દુર્યોધન immediately defends Karna, and makes him king of [[Anga]] so that he is regarded as Arjuna's equal. Karna pledges his allegiance and friendship to Duryodhana, as દુર્યોધન had rescued him from the source of continuing humiliation and hardship for him. Neither of them know that Karna is in fact [[Kunti]]'s eldest son born to [[Surya]].
A very intense bond of friendship develops between the two, and દુર્યોધન becomes very close to [[Karna]]. It is held that if there was one good quality in Duryodhana, it was his deep affection for his friend [[Karna]].
In the [[Kurukshetra War]], [[Karna]] is Duryodhana's greatest hope for victory. He earnestly believes that Karna is superior to [[Arjuna]], and will inevitably destroy him and his four brothers. While devoted to Duryodhana, [[Karna]] knows that even though his skills are as good as, if not better than [[Arjuna]]'s, he is incapable of killing [[Arjuna]] as he is protected by Lord [[Krishna]]. When [[Karna]] is killed, દુર્યોધન mourns his death intensely.
== Evil tendencies and schemes ==
[[ચિત્ર:Duryodana-kl.jpg|thumb|દુર્યોધન in Javanese [[Wayang]]]]
Although loved by all his family, દુર્યોધનand most of his brothers are seen as inferior to the [[Pandavas]] in their adherence to virtue and duty, and respect of elders. દુર્યોધન is mentored by his maternal uncle [[Shakuni]], who desires the elevation of his sister's children at the expense of the [[Pandavas]]. Shakuni masterminds most of Duryodhana's plots to humiliate and kill the Pandavas.
દુર્યોધન is especially jealous of the Pandavas, knowing that [[Yudhisthira]] is his rival to the throne of [[Hastinapura]]. He also bore a deep hatred of [[Bhima]], who dominates the Kauravas in sport and skill, with his immense physical power and strength.
દુર્યોધન attempts to murder Bhima by feeding him a poisoned feast, but Bhima survives due to his immense physical capacity and blessings from celestial [[Naga (mythology)|Nagas]]. દુર્યોધન then plots with his evil counselor ''Purochana'' to set ablaze a house where the Pandavas were staying. Purochana is himself killed in the fire, but the Pandavas manage to escape.
== રાજ્ય પચાવી પાડવું ==
When the princes come of age, [[Yudhisthira]] is given half the kingdom and made king of [[Indraprastha]], so as to avoid a clash with the Kaurava princes over the whole Kuru kingdom. દુર્યોધન becomes the prince regent of Hastinapura, and owing to the age and blindness of his father, he accumulates much control and influence, managing the state affairs himself with a coterie of his advisors that include his uncle [[Shakuni]], brother [[Dushasana]] and friend [[Karna]].
But દુર્યોધન remains jealous of Yudhisthira, owing to Indraprastha's prosperity and fame exceeding Hastinapura's. When Yudhisthira performs the ''Rajasuya'' sacrifice that makes him emperor of the World, દુર્યોધન is unable to contain his anger, which is intensified when Yudhisthira's queen [[Draupadi]] makes fun of him when he slips into a pool of water in the court.
=== ધૃતક્રિડા અને દ્રૌપદી ચીરહરણ ===
Knowing that the Kauravas cannot rival the Pandavas in martial power, [[Shakuni]] devises a scheme to rob Yudhisthira of his kingdom and wealth by defeating him in a game of dice, which Shakuni is an expert at and Yudhisthira a complete novice. Unable to resist the challenge, Yudhisthira gambles away his entire kingdom, his wealth, his four brothers and even his wife, in a series of gambits to retrieve one by staking another.
The first time, the king [[Dhritarashtra]] and [[Vidura]] make દુર્યોધન re-establish Yudhisthira. But when the plot is repeated, Shakuni sets the condition that Yudhisthira and his brothers must spend thirteen years in exile in the forest before they may receive their kingdom back. The thirteenth year must be passed incognito, or else they would be condemned to repeat the term of exile.
દુર્યોધન encourages his brother Dushasana to drag Draupadi into the court and strip her clothes, as she is now his property as Yudhisthira had gambled everything away to him. Dushasana attempts to strip Draupadi, who is mystically rescued by [[Krishna]], who gives her an inexhaustible supply of [[sari]].
Nevertheless, due to this action [[Bhima]] swears that at the end of the exile, he would break Duryodhana's thigh (as દુર્યોધનasked Draupadi to sit on his thigh).
=== દિગ્વિજય ===
During the exile, દુર્યોધન attempts to humiliate Yudhisthira by flashing his wealth and prowess in their forest of exile. He is however caught in a conflict with the Gandharva king Chitrasena, who captures him. Yudhisthira asks Arjuna and Bhima to rescue Duryodhana, who is humiliated. Setting his mind to die, દુર્યોધન pledges to fast unto death.
During his fast, દુર્યોધન is mystically taken to a gathering of powerful [[Daitya]] and [[Danava]] beings, who inform him that he was born as a result of their [[tapasya]], and his mission was to destroy the purpose of the [[Deva (Hinduism)|Devas]] and [[Krishna]] upon earth. The demonic beings assure him that powerful demons had been incarnated as his allies, making his defeat impossible. Encouraged, દુર્યોધન returns to Hastinapura.
[[Karna]] now embarks upon a worldwide military campaign to subjugate kings and impose Duryodhana's imperial authority over them. Bringing tribute and allegiance from all the world's kings, Karna helps દુર્યોધન perform the ''Vaishnava'' sacrifice to please [[Vishnu]], and crowns himself World emperor, as Yudhisthira did with the ''Rajasuya''.
== કુરુક્ષેત્ર યુદ્ધ ==
At the end of the exile term, દુર્યોધન refuses to return Yudhisthira's kingdom, despite the counsel of Bhishma, Drona, Vidura and even [[Krishna]], whom he attempted to kidnap. Although Dhritarashtra criticizes his son, he tacitly desires that Duryodhana, and not Yudhishitra remain Emperor.
Making war inevitable, દુર્યોધન gathers support from powerful kings and armies. The most legendary warriors - [[Bhishma]], [[Drona]], [[Kripa]], [[Ashwathama]], [[Shalya]], even though most of them were critical of him - are forced to fight for Duryodhana. He ends up amassing a larger army than his rivals.
In the war, દુર્યોધન repeatedly eggs on the invincible Bhishma and Drona to forward his cause, even though his main hope is Karna. He asks Drona to capture Yudhisthira alive, so that he may blackmail the Pandavas into surrender, or force Yudhisthira to gamble again. He also participates in the brutal and unethical murder of Arjuna's son [[Abhimanyu]].
But he is repeatedly frustrated when the Pandavas succeed in downing the two Kuru legends, and is emotionally distraught when [[Arjuna]] slays over one million Kuru soldiers in one day and kills [[Jayadratha]], the king of [[Sindhu]] over the killing of [[Abhimanyu]]. And all along, Bhima is steadily slaying his brothers, increasing his misery and bringing him closer to defeat.
Duryodhana's hopes are finally shattered when Karna is killed by Arjuna after an intense and legendary battle. After making some final desperate efforts, he flees the battlefield and hides in a lake, within which he survives by his mystic powers of [[yoga]]. He re-emerges after [[Ashwathama]] and [[Kripa]] encourage him to face his destiny with courage.
== ભીમ સાથી દ્વંદ્વ યુદ્ધ અને ગાંધારીના આશીર્વાદ ==
Queen Gandhari is distraught when she hears that all her sons save દુર્યોધન have been slain. Despite knowing that દુર્યોધન was wicked and his cause unrighteous, she decides to help him win. Asking him to bathe and enter her tent naked, she prepares to use the great mystic power of her eyes, blind-folded for many years out of respect for her blind husband, to make his body invincible to all attack in every portion.
But when [[Krishna]], who is returning after paying the queen a visit, runs into a naked દુર્યોધન coming to the tent, he mockingly admonishes him for his intent to appear so before his own mother. Knowing of Gandhari's intentions, Krishna criticizes Duryodhana, who sheepishly covers his groin before entering the tent.
When Gandhari's eyes fall upon Duryodhana, they mystically make each part of his body invincible. She is shocked to see that દુર્યોધન had covered his groin, which were thus not protected by her mystic power.
When he faces the Pandava brothers and Krishna alone, Yudhisthira offers him the option of fighting any of the Pandava one-on-one. If he defeated that Pandava, Yudhisthira would hand the kingdom to Duryodhana, despite having won the wider war.
Out of pride, દુર્યોધન picks his archnemesis [[Bhima]] instead of any of the other Pandava brothers who would have been overwhelmed by his skill at fighting with the mace. Both possessed exceptional physical strength and had trained under [[Balarama]] in mace fighting and wrestling to the same level of prowess. After a long and brutal battle stretching many days, દુર્યોધન begins to exhaust Bhima.
At this point, [[Krishna]], who is observing the fight, motions to Bhima, reminding him of his oath to crush Duryodhana's thigh. Bhima viciously attacks દુર્યોધન with a mace and strikes at his thigh which is not protected by Gandhari's blessing, and દુર્યોધન finally falls, mortally wounded.
Although દુર્યોધન bemoans that he was slain by unfair means, given that it was illegal to attack below the waist according to the rules of mace-fighting, Krishna points out to the dying prince that his humiliation of Draupadi, murder plots and cheating of the Pandavas and the killing of Abhimanyu did not comply with [[dharma]] or the norms of battle either. It was useless thus, for દુર્યોધન to hope that religious values would protect him, when he had honored them not once in his whole life.
=== સ્વર્ગવાસ ===
દુર્યોધન dies slowly, and is cremated by the Pandavas. When [[Yudhisthira]] himself ascends to [[Swarga]], he sees દુર્યોધન there upon a throne. He is angry that દુર્યોધન is enjoying a place in heaven despite his sins, but [[Indra]] explains to him that he had served his time in hell, and had also been a good and powerful king.
== અન્ય મતો ==
The moderate view of Hindu scholars is that દુર્યોધન was a powerful and capable king who governed his subjects fairly, but was devious and wicked in his plots against his brothers. He is condemned for attempting to humiliate Draupadi out of pride and blatant disregard for traditions. Like [[Ravana]], દુર્યોધન was powerful and glorious, and well-versed in religious knowledge, but fails to adhere to those values in practical life. But most Hindus regard દુર્યોધન as blatantly evil.
દુર્યોધન is often compared with [[Achilles]] of [[Homer]]'s [[Iliad]]. While it was the [[heel]] ( [[Achilles' heel]]) for the latter, it was the [[thigh]] for the former.
In [[Kumaon]] region of [[Uttranchal]], several beautifully carved temples are dedicated to દુર્યોધન and he is worshipped as a minor deity. The mountain tribes of Kumaon fought along with દુર્યોધન armies in the Mahābhārata war; he was venerated as a capable and generous administrator.
=== પ્રસાર માધ્યમોમાં ===
In the ''Mahābhārata'' television series of the late 1980s in [[India]], Duryodhana's character is played by [[Punjabi people|Punjabi]] actor [[Puneet Issar]].
Perhaps the most popular actor in India who has played the role of દુર્યોધન in cinemas was Telugu Super Star [[N. T. Rama Rao]], who was the supremo of Telugu Desam party and ruled as the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh for over a decade.
The ''humiliation of Draupadi'' is a section of the Mahābhārata often re-created and interpreted in Indian drama and theatre.
== કડિઓ ==