"સમાજવાદ" ની આવૃત્તિઓ વચ્ચેનો તફાવત

કડી
(કડી)
ટેગ: ૨૦૧૭ સ્ત્રોત ફેરફાર
'''સમાજવાદ''' એક આર્થિક અને રાજકીય વિચારસરણી છે, કે જે માને છે કે ઉત્પાદનનાં તમામ સાધનોની પેદાશ, સર્જન, વહેંચણી તથા વિનિમય પર સમગ્ર સમાજની[[સમાજ]]ની સામૂહિક માલિકી તથા પ્રભુત્ત્વ હોવું જોઈએ.<ref name="મૂળે૨૦૦૭">{{cite encyclopedia|last=મૂળે|first=બાળકૃષ્ણ માધવરાવ|title=સમાજવાદ|encyclopedia=[[ગુજરાતી વિશ્વકોશ]]|publisher=ગુજરાતી વિશ્વકોશ ટ્રસ્ટ|year=2000|editor-last=ઠાકર|editor-first=ધીરુભાઈ|editor-link=ધીરુભાઈ ઠાકર|edition=પ્રથમ|volume=ખંડ ૨૨ (સ – સા)|publication-location=અમદાવાદ|page=૨૨૩|oclc=213511854}}</ref> સમાજવાદ માને છે કે ન્યાયના ધોરણ પર હાલની ઔદ્યોગિક પદ્ધતિ રચવા માટે દેશના ઉદ્યોગોની માલિકી અને વ્યવસ્થા સમાજને અથવા સમસ્ત પ્રજાને હસ્તક હોવાં જોઈએ. અહિં રાજ્યના એક તંત્ર હેઠળ ઉદ્યોગ-વ્યવસ્થા રચવાનો ઈરાદો હોય છે, માટે સમાજવાદને સમૂહવાદ તરીકે પણ ઓળખવામાં આવે છે.<ref name=જોષી૨૦૧૬>{{cite book|last=જોષી|first=વિદ્યુતભાઈ|title=પારિભાષિક કોશ-સમાજશાસ્ત્ર|year=૨૦૧૬|edition=દ્વિતીય|publisher=યુનિવર્સિટી ગ્રંથનિર્માણ બોર્ડ|publication-place=અમદાવાદ|page=૧૫૪|isbn=978-93-85344-46-6}}</ref>
 
સમાજવાદ એ આર્થિક અને સામાજિક વ્યવસ્થાની એક શ્રેણી છે જે ઉત્પાદનના સાધન અને કામદારોના સ્વ-વ્યવસ્થાપનની સામાજિક માલિકી,{{Refn|<ref>{{cite book |title=Upton Sinclair's: A Monthly Magazine: for Social Justice, by Peaceful Means If Possible |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=i0w9AQAAMAAJ |date=1 January 1918 |last=Sinclair |first=Upton |authorlink=Upton Sinclair |quote=Socialism, you see, is a bird with two wings. The definition is 'social ownership and democratic control of the instruments and means of production.'}}</ref><ref name="Nove">{{cite web |last=Nove |first=Alec |title=Socialism |website=New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Second Edition (2008) |url=http://www.dictionaryofeconomics.com/article?id=pde2008_S000173 |quote=A society may be defined as socialist if the major part of the means of production of goods and services is in some sense socially owned and operated, by state, socialised or cooperative enterprises. The practical issues of socialism comprise the relationships between management and workforce within the enterprise, the interrelationships between production units (plan versus markets), and, if the state owns and operates any part of the economy, who controls it and how.}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last=Rosser |first=Mariana V. and J Barkley Jr. |title=Comparative Economics in a Transforming World Economy |publisher=MIT Press |date=23 July 2003 |isbn=978-0-262-18234-8 |page=53 |quote=Socialism is an economic system characterised by state or collective ownership of the means of production, land, and capital.}}</ref><ref name="N. Scott Arnold 1998. pg. 8">"What else does a socialist economic system involve? Those who favor socialism generally speak of social ownership, social control, or socialization of the means of production as the distinctive positive feature of a socialist economic system" N. Scott Arnold. ''The Philosophy and Economics of Market Socialism : A Critical Study''. Oxford University Press. 1998. p. 8</ref><ref name="Busky1">{{cite book |last=Busky |first=Donald F. |title=Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey |publisher=Praeger |year=2000 |isbn=978-0-275-96886-1 |page=2 |quote=Socialism may be defined as movements for social ownership and control of the economy. It is this idea that is the common element found in the many forms of socialism.}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |author1=Bertrand Badie |author2=Dirk Berg-Schlosser |author3=Leonardo Morlino |title=International Encyclopedia of Political Science |publisher=SAGE Publications, Inc |year=2011 |isbn=978-1-4129-5963-6 |page=2456 |quote=Socialist systems are those regimes based on the economic and political theory of socialism, which advocates public ownership and cooperative management of the means of production and allocation of resources.}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last=Zimbalist, Sherman and Brown |first=Andrew, Howard J. and Stuart |title=Comparing Economic Systems: A Political-Economic Approach |publisher=Harcourt College Pub |date=1988 |isbn=978-0-15-512403-5 |page=[https://archive.org/details/comparingeconomi0000zimb_q8i6/page/7 7] |quote=Pure socialism is defined as a system wherein all of the means of production are owned and run by the government and/or cooperative, nonprofit groups. |url=https://archive.org/details/comparingeconomi0000zimb_q8i6/page/7 }}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last=Brus |first=Wlodzimierz |title=The Economics and Politics of Socialism |publisher=Routledge |date=2015 |isbn=978-0-415-86647-7 |page=87 |quote=This alteration in the relationship between economy and politics is evident in the very definition of a socialist economic system. The basic characteristic of such a system is generally reckoned to be the predominance of the social ownership of the means of production.}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last=Michie |first=Jonathan |title=Readers Guide to the Social Sciences |publisher=Routledge |year=2001 |isbn=978-1-57958-091-9 |page=1516 |quote=Just as private ownership defines capitalism, social ownership defines socialism. The essential characteristic of socialism in theory is that it destroys social hierarchies, and therefore leads to a politically and economically egalitarian society. Two closely related consequences follow. First, every individual is entitled to an equal ownership share that earns an aliquot part of the total social dividend…Second, in order to eliminate social hierarchy in the workplace, enterprises are run by those employed, and not by the representatives of private or state capital. Thus, the well-known historical tendency of the divorce between ownership and management is brought to an end. The society—i.e. every individual equally—owns capital and those who work are entitled to manage their own economic affairs.}}</ref>}} તેમજ તેમની સાથે સંકળાયેલ રાજકીય સિદ્ધાંતો અને હિલચાલ દ્વારા વર્ગીકૃત થયેલ છે. <ref name="Socialism at The Free dictionary">"2. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) any of various social or political theories or movements in which the common welfare is to be achieved through the establishment of a socialist economic system" [http://www.thefreedictionary.com/socialism "Socialism" at The Free dictionary]</ref> સામાજિક માલિકી જાહેર, સામૂહિક અથવા સહકારી માલિકી અથવા સમાન રીતની નાગરિક માલિકી હોઈ શકે છે.<ref>{{Cite book|title=Encyclopedia of Political Economy, Volume 2|last=O'Hara|first=Phillip|date=2003|publisher=[[Routledge]]|isbn=978-0-415-24187-8|page=71|quote=In order of increasing decentralisation (at least) three forms of socialised ownership can be distinguished: state-owned firms, employee-owned (or socially) owned firms, and citizen ownership of equity.}}</ref>{{અસ્પષ્ટ}} સમાજવાદના ઘણા પ્રકારો છે અને તે બધાને સમાવવા માટે કોઈ એક જ વ્યાખ્યા નથી, <ref name="Peter Lamb 2006. p. 1">{{Harvard citation no brackets|Lamb|Docherty|2006}}</ref> સામાજિક માલિકી દ્વારા વહેંચાયેલ વિવિધ સ્વરૂપો એ તેમાં રહેલું સામાન્ય તત્વ છે. <ref>{{Cite book|title=The Philosophy and Economics of Market Socialism: A Critical Study|last=Arnold|first=Scott|date=1994|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-508827-4|pages=7–8|quote=This term is harder to define, since socialists disagree among themselves about what socialism ‘really is.’ It would seem that everyone (socialists and nonsocialists alike) could at least agree that it is not a system in which there is widespread private ownership of the means of production…To be a socialist is not just to believe in certain ends, goals, values, or ideals. It also requires a belief in a certain institutional means to achieve those ends; whatever that may mean in positive terms, it certainly presupposes, at a minimum, the belief that these ends and values cannot be achieved in an economic system in which there is widespread private ownership of the means of production…Those who favor socialism generally speak of social ownership, social control, or socialization of the means of production as the distinctive positive feature of a socialist economic system.}}</ref> <ref>{{Cite book|url=https://archive.org/details/oxfordcompaniont00hast/page/677|title=The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought|last=Hastings, Mason and Pyper|first=Adrian, Alistair and Hugh|date=21 December 2000|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-860024-4|page=[https://archive.org/details/oxfordcompaniont00hast/page/677 677]|quote=Socialists have always recognized that there are many possible forms of social ownership of which co-operative ownership is one...Nevertheless, socialism has throughout its history been inseparable from some form of common ownership. By its very nature it involves the abolition of private ownership of capital; bringing the means of production, distribution, and exchange into public ownership and control is central to its philosophy. It is difficult to see how it can survive, in theory or practice, without this central idea.}}</ref>