પ્લૂટો પહેલાં સૂર્યમંડળના નવમા ગ્રહ તરીકે ઓળખવામાં આવતો હતો, પણ હવે તેને સૌરમંડળના બીજા સૌથી મોટા વામન ગ્રહ તરીકે વર્ગીકૃત કરવામાં આવે છે. તેની સૂર્યની આસપાસ પરીભ્રમણ કક્ષા એટલી લંબગોળ છે જેને કારણે તે નૅપ્ચ્યુન ગ્રહની કક્ષા ની અંદર પ્રવેશ કરે છે. પ્લૂટો સૂર્યથી ખૂબ દૂર હોવાને કારણે તે આખો બરફથી ઢંકાયેલો છે અને અંધાર્યો છે.

પ્લુટો 2nd Astronomical symbol for Pluto
Pluto in True Color - High-Res.jpg
પ્લુટોનો ઉત્તર ગોળાર્ધ[lower-alpha ૧]
Discovery
Discovered byClyde W. Tombaugh
Discovery siteLowell Observatory
Discovery dateFebruary 18, 1930
Designations
Designation
(134340) Pluto
Pronunciation/ˈplt/ (About this sound listen)
Named after
Pluto
AdjectivesPlutonian /plˈtniən/[૧]
Orbital characteristics[૪][lower-alpha ૨]
Epoch J2000
Earliest precovery dateAugust 20, 1909
Aphelion
  • 49.305 AU
  • (૭.૩૭૫૯૩ billion km)
  • February 2114
Perihelion
  • 29.658 AU
  • (૪.૪૩૬૮૨ billion km)[૨]
  • (September 5, 1989)[૩]
  • 39.482 AU
  • (૫.૯૦૬૩૮ billion km)
Eccentricity0.2488
366.73 days[૨]
4.743 km/s[૨]
14.53 deg
Inclination
  • 17.16°
  • (11.88° to Sun's equator)
110.299°
113.834°
Known satellites5
Physical characteristics
Dimensions૨,૩૭૬.૬±૧.૬ km (observations consistent with a sphere, predicted deviations too small to be observed)[૫]
Mean radius
Flattening<1%[૭]
Volume
Mass
Mean density
1.854±0.006 g/cm3[૬][૭]
1.212 km/s[lower-alpha ૬]
  • 6.387230 d
  • 6 d, 9 h, 17 m, 36 s
Equatorial rotation velocity
47.18 km/h
122.53° (to orbit)[૨]
North pole right ascension
132.993°[૮]
North pole declination
−6.163°[૮]
Albedo0.49 to 0.66 (geometric, varies by 35%)[૨][૯]
Surface temp. min mean max
Kelvin 33 K 44 K (−229 °C) 55 K
13.65[૨] to 16.3[૧૦]
(mean is 15.1)[૨]
−0.7[૧૧]
0.06″ to 0.11″[૨][lower-alpha ૭]
Atmosphere
Surface pressure
1.0 Pa (2015)[૭][૧૩]
Composition by volumeNitrogen, methane, carbon monoxide[૧૨]
Mosaic of best-resolution images of Pluto from different angles

પ્લૂટો પૃથ્વીના ઉપગ્રહ ચંદ્રથી પણ નાનો છે. પ્લૂટોને ૫ ચંદ્ર છે. પ્લૂટોનું તાપમાન -૨૩૩° સે. સુધીનું હોય છે.

નોંધફેરફાર કરો

  1. This photograph was taken by the Ralph telescope aboard New Horizons on July 14, 2015 from a distance of 35,445 km (22,025 mi). The most prominent feature in the image, the bright, youthful plains of Tombaugh Regio and Sputnik Planitia, can be seen at right. It contrasts the darker, more cratered terrain of Cthulhu Macula at lower left. Because of Pluto's 119.591° tilt at its axis, the southern hemisphere is barely visible in this image; the equator runs through Cthulhu Macula and the southern parts of Sputnik Planitia.
  2. The mean elements here are from the Theory of the Outer Planets (TOP2013) solution by the Institut de mécanique céleste et de calcul des éphémérides (IMCCE). They refer to the standard equinox J2000, the barycenter of the Solar System, and the epoch J2000.
  3. Surface area derived from the radius r: '"`UNIQ--postMath-00000001-QINU`"'.
  4. Volume v derived from the radius r: '"`UNIQ--postMath-00000002-QINU`"'.
  5. Surface gravity derived from the mass M, the gravitational constant G and the radius r: '"`UNIQ--postMath-00000003-QINU`"'.
  6. Escape velocity derived from the mass M, the gravitational constant G and the radius r: '"`UNIQ--postMath-00000004-QINU`"'.
  7. Based on geometry of minimum and maximum distance from Earth and Pluto radius in the factsheet

સંદર્ભોફેરફાર કરો

  1. Plutonian (3rd ed.), Oxford University Press, September 2005, http://oed.com/search?searchType=dictionary&q=Plutonian  ઢાંચો:OEDsub
  2. ૨.૦ ૨.૧ ૨.૨ ૨.૩ ૨.૪ ૨.૫ ૨.૬ ૨.૭ ૨.૮ ૨.૯ Williams, David R. (July 24, 2015). "Pluto Fact Sheet". NASA. Retrieved August 6, 2015. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  3. "Horizon Online Ephemeris System for Pluto Barycenter". JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System @ Solar System Dynamics Group. Retrieved January 16, 2011. Check date values in: |accessdate= (મદદ) (Observer Location @sun with the observer at the center of the Sun)
  4. "New analytical planetary theories VSOP2013 and TOP2013". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 557 (2): A49. September 2013. Bibcode:2013A&A...557A..49S. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201321843. Unknown parameter |first૪= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |last૪= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |last૩= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |first૨= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |last૧= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |last૨= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |first૧= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |first૩= ignored (મદદ) The elements in the clearer and usual format is in the spreadsheet and the original TOP2013 elements here.
  5. ૫.૦ ૫.૧ Lua error in વિભાગ:Citation/CS1/Utilities at line 55: bad argument #1 to 'message.newRawMessage' (string expected, got nil).
  6. ૬.૦ ૬.૧ Lua error in વિભાગ:Citation/CS1/Utilities at line 55: bad argument #1 to 'message.newRawMessage' (string expected, got nil).
  7. ૭.૦ ૭.૧ ૭.૨ ૭.૩ Lua error in વિભાગ:Citation/CS1/Utilities at line 55: bad argument #1 to 'message.newRawMessage' (string expected, got nil).
  8. ૮.૦ ૮.૧ "Report of the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements: 2009" (PDF). Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy. 109 (2): 101–135. 2010. Bibcode:2011CeMDA.109..101A. doi:10.1007/s10569-010-9320-4. the original (PDF) માંથી March 4, 2016 પર સંગ્રહિત. Retrieved September 26, 2018. Unknown parameter |first૧૬= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |first૫= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |last૩= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |last૮= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |first૮= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |first૧= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |first૧૦= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |last૯= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |last૧૦= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |first૧૫= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |first૨= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |first૧૪= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |first૭= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |last૧૬= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |first૧૭= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |last૧૭= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |last૭= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |last૨= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |last૧૩= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |first૪= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |first૧૨= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |last૬= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |last૧૨= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |first૯= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |first૧૩= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |first૬= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |last૧૧= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |first૧૧= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |last૧૫= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |last૧૪= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |last૧= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |last૪= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |last૫= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |first૩= ignored (મદદ); Check date values in: |access-date=, |year=, |archive-date= (મદદ)CS1 maint: display-authors (link)
  9. Hamilton, Calvin J. (February 12, 2006). "Dwarf Planet Pluto". Views of the Solar System. Retrieved January 10, 2007. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  10. "AstDys (134340) Pluto Ephemerides". Department of Mathematics, University of Pisa, Italy. Retrieved June 27, 2010. Check date values in: |accessdate= (મદદ)
  11. "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 134340 Pluto". Retrieved June 12, 2008. Check date values in: |accessdate= (મદદ)
  12. "Pluto has carbon monoxide in its atmosphere". Physorg.com. April 19, 2011. Retrieved November 22, 2011. Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)
  13. Amos, Jonathan (July 23, 2015). "New Horizons: Pluto may have 'nitrogen glaciers'". BBC News. Retrieved July 26, 2015. It could tell from the passage of sunlight and radiowaves through the Plutonian "air" that the pressure was only about 10 microbars at the surface Check date values in: |accessdate=, |date= (મદદ)

પૂરક વાચનફેરફાર કરો

  • Codex Regius (2016), Pluto & Charon, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform ISBN 978-1534960749
  • Stern, S A and Tholen, D J (1997), Pluto and Charon, University of Arizona Press ISBN 978-0816518401
  • Chasing New Horizons: Inside the Epic First Mission to Pluto. Picador. 2018. ISBN 978-125009896-2. Unknown parameter |last૨= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |first૧= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |last૧= ignored (મદદ); Unknown parameter |first૨= ignored (મદદ); Check date values in: |date= (મદદ)

બાહ્ય કડીઓફેરફાર કરો

Pluto વિષય પર વધુ જાણવા માટે જુઓ:
  શબ્દકોશ
  પુસ્તકો
  અવતરણો
  વિકિસ્રોત
  દ્રશ્ય-શ્રાવ્ય માધ્યમો અને ચિત્રો
  સમાચાર
  અભ્યાસ સામગ્રી