A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies. Some have combined the roles of head of state and head of government, much like presidential systems, but with a dependency upon parliamentary power.
List of modern parliamentary republics ફેરફાર કરો
|Country||Head of State Elected By||Cameral Structure||Parliamentary Republic Adopted||Formerly|
|Albania||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1991||One-party state|
|Armenia||Parliament, by absolute majority||Unicameral||2018[note ૧]||Semi-presidential republic|
|Austria||Direct election, by second-round system||Bicameral||1945||One-party state (as part of Nazi Germany, see Anschluss)|
|Bangladesh||Parliament||Unicameral||1991[note ૨]||Presidential republic|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Direct election of collective head of state, by first-past-the-post vote||Bicameral||1991||One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)|
|Bulgaria||Direct election, by second-round system||Unicameral||1991||One-party state|
|Croatia||Direct election, by second-round system||Unicameral||2000||Semi-presidential republic|
|Czech Republic||Direct election, by second-round system (since 2013; previously parliament, by majority)||Bicameral||1993||One-party state (part of Czechoslovakia)|
|Dominica||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1978||Associated state of the United Kingdom|
|EstoniaEstonia||Parliament, by two-thirds majority||Unicameral||1991[note ૩]||One-party state (part of Soviet Union)|
|EthiopiaEthiopia||Parliament, by two-thirds majority||Bicameral||1991||One-party state|
|FijiFiji||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||2014||Military dictatorship|
|FinlandFinland||Direct election, by second-round system||Unicameral||2000[note ૪]||Semi-presidential republic|
|GermanyGermany||Federal Assembly (parliament and state delegates), by absolute majority||Bicameral||1949[note ૫]||One-party state|
|GreeceGreece||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1975||Military dictatorship; constitutional monarchy|
|HungaryHungary||Parliament, by absolute majority||Unicameral||1990||One-party state|
|IcelandIceland||Direct election, by first-past-the-post vote||Unicameral||1944||Constitutional monarchy (part of Denmark)|
|IndiaIndia||Parliament and state legislators, by instant-runoff vote||Bicameral||1950||Constitutional monarchy (British Dominion)|
|IraqIraq||Parliament, by two-thirds majority||Unicameral||2005||One-party state|
|IrelandIreland||Direct election, by instant-runoff vote||Bicameral||1919[note ૬]||Constitutional monarchy (Part of the British Empire)|
|IsraelIsrael||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||2001||Semi-parliamentary republic|
|ItalyItaly||Parliament, by absolute majority||Bicameral||1946||Constitutional monarchy|
|KosovoKosovo||Parliament, by two-thirds majority; by a simple majority, at the third ballot,
if no candidate achieves the aforementioned majority in the first two ballots
|Unicameral||2008||UN-administered Kosovo (formally part of Serbia)|
|LatviaLatvia||Parliament||Unicameral||1991[note ૭]||One-party state (part of Soviet Union)|
|LebanonLebanon||Parliament||Unicameral||1941||Protectorate (French mandate of Lebanon)|
|Macedonia||Direct election, by second-round system||Unicameral||1991||One-party state (part of the Yugoslavia)|
|MaltaMalta||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1974||Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm)|
|MauritiusMauritius||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1992||Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm)|
|MoldovaMoldova||Direct election, by second-round system
(since 2016; previously by parliament, by three-fifths majority)
|MontenegroMontenegro||Direct election, by second-round system||Unicameral||1992||One-party state (Part of Yugoslavia, and after Serbia and Montenegro)|
|NepalNepal||Parliament and state legislators||Bicameral||2015[note ૮]||Constitutional monarchy|
|PakistanPakistan||Parliament and state legislators, by instant-runoff vote||Bicameral||2010||Semi-presidential republic|
|SamoaSamoa||Parliament||Unicameral||1960||Trust Territory of New Zealand|
|SerbiaSerbia||Direct election, by second-round system||Unicameral||1991||One-party state (part of Yugoslavia, and after Serbia and Montenegro)|
|SingaporeSingapore||Direct election (since 1993)||Unicameral||1965||State of Malaysia|
|SlovakiaSlovakia||Direct election, by second-round system (since 1999; previously by parliament)||Unicameral||1993||One-party state (part of Czechoslovakia)|
|SloveniaSlovenia||Direct election, by second-round system||Bicameral||1991||One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)|
|SomaliaSomalia||Parliament||Bicameral||2012[note ૯]||One-party state|
|Trinidad and TobagoTrinidad and Tobago||Parliament||Bicameral||1976||Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm)|
|VanuatuVanuatu||Parliament and regional council presidents, by majority||Unicameral||1980||British–French condominium (New Hebrides)|
|Parliamentary Republics with a "Mixed-Republican" System|
|Country||Head of State Elected By||Cameral Structure||Parliamentary Republic Adopted||Formerly|
|BotswanaBotswana||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1966||British protectorate (Bechuanaland Protectorate)|
|KiribatiKiribati||Direct election, by first-past-the-post vote||Unicameral||1979||Protectorate|
|Marshall IslandsMarshall Islands||Parliament||Bicameral||1979||UN Trust Territory (part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)|
|ઢાંચો:Country data MicronesiaMicronesia||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1986||UN Trust Territory (Part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)|
|MyanmarMyanmar||Parliament, by an electoral college||Bicameral||2010||Military dictatorship|
|NauruNauru||Parliament||Unicameral||1968||Australian Trust Territory|
|San MarinoSan Marino||Parliament||Unicameral||301||Autocracy (part of the Roman Empire)|
|South AfricaSouth Africa||Parliament, by majority||Bicameral||1961||Constitutional monarchy (Commonwealth realm)|
|SurinameSuriname||Parliament, by majority||Unicameral||1987||Military dictatorship|
|SwitzerlandSwitzerland||Federal Assembly (parliament and canton delegates), by absolute majority||Bicameral||1848||Confederation|
List of former parliamentary republics ફેરફાર કરો
|Country||Year became a parliamentary republic||Year status changed||Changed to||Status changed due to|
|First Czechoslovak Republic||1920||1939||One-party state||Munich agreement|
|First Austrian Republic||1920||1929||Semi-presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|Burma (present-day Myanmar)||1948||1962||Military dictatorship||1962 Burmese coup d'état|
|French Third Republic||1870||1940||Presidential system||World War II German Occupation|
|French Fourth Republic||1946||1958||Semi-presidential system||Political instability|
|Guyana||1970||1980||Presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|Hungary||1946||1949||One-party state||Creation of the People's Republic of Hungary|
|Indonesia||1945||1959||Presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|IsraelIsrael||1948||1996||Semi-parliamentary system||Constitutional amendment|
|Second Republic of South Korea||1960||1961||Presidential system||May 16 coup|
|Lithuanian First Republic||1920||1926||One-party state||1926 Lithuanian coup d'état[note ૧૦]|
(which led in 1979
to the democratic, presidential Second Nigerian Republic)
|PakistanPakistan||1956||1958||Military dictatorship||1958 Pakistani coup d'état|
|1973||1978||1977 Pakistani coup d'état|
|1988||1999||1999 Pakistani coup d'état|
|Second Polish Republic||1919||1939||One-party state||Invasion of Poland|
|First Portuguese Republic||1911||1926||Military dictatorship
(which led in 1933
to the Estado Novo One-party state)
|May 28 coup|
|First Philippine Republic (Malolos Republic)||1899||1901||Military dictatorship
(De facto United States Colony)
|Capture of Emilio Aguinaldo to the American forces|
|ઢાંચો:Country data Democratic Republic of Congo Republic of the Congo||1960||1965||Military dictatorship
(De facto One-party state)
|1965 Congolese coup d'état|
|RussiaRussia||1991[note ૧૧]||1993||Semi-presidential system||Referendum[note ૧૨]|
|RhodesiaRhodesia||1970||1979||Parliamentary system||Creation of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia|
|ઢાંચો:Country data Spanish RepublicSpanish Republic||1931||1939||Fascist dictatorship||Loss of Spanish Civil War|
|ઢાંચો:SRISri Lanka||1972||1978||Semi-presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
|Syrian Republic||1930||1958||One-party state||Creation of the United Arab Republic|
|Syrian Arab Republic||1961||1963||One-party state||1963 Syrian coup d'état|
|ઢાંચો:UGAUganda||1963||1966||One-party state||Suspension of the constitution|
|Zimbabwe RhodesiaZimbabwe Rhodesia||1979||1979||Parliamentary system||Reversion to Southern Rhodesia|
|ZimbabweZimbabwe||1980||1987||Presidential system||Constitutional amendment|
Notes ફેરફાર કરો
- Changed after the 2015 referendum.
- Was, previously, a parliamentary republic between 1971 and 1975.
- Estonia was previously a parliamentary republic between 1919 and 1934 when the government was overthrown by a coup d'état. In 1938, Estonia adopted a presidential system and in June 1940 was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.
- Formerly a semi-presidential republic, it is now a parliamentary republic according to David Arter, First Chair of Politics at Aberdeen University. In his "Scandinavian Politics Today" (Manchester University Press, revised 2008 ISBN 9780719078538), he quotes Nousiainen, Jaakko (June 2001). "From semi-presidentialism to parliamentary government: political and constitutional developments in Finland". Scandinavian Political Studies. Wiley. 24 (2): 95–109. doi:10.1111/1467-9477.00048.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) as follows: "There are hardly any grounds for the epithet 'semi-presidential'." Arter's own conclusions are only slightly more nuanced: "The adoption of a new constitution on 1 March 2000 meant that Finland was no longer a case of semi-presidential government other than in the minimalist sense of a situation where a popularly elected fixed-term president exists alongside a prime minister and cabinet who are responsible to parliament (Elgie 2004: 317)". According to the Finnish Constitution, the president has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval, and does not have the power to dissolve the parliament under his or her own desire. Finland is actually represented by its prime minister, and not by its president, in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union. The 2012 constitutional amendements reduced the powers of the president even further.
- In the case of the former West German states, including former West Berlin, the previous one-party state is Nazi Germany, but in the case of the New Länder and former East Berlin it is East Germany. Please note that German reunification took place on 3 October 1990, when the five re-established states of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) joined the Federal Republic of Germany, and Berlin was united into a single city-state. Therefore, this date applies to today's Federal Republic of Germany as a whole, although the area of former East Germany was no part of that parliamentary republic until 1990.
- Irish head of state from 1936 to 1949.
- Latvia was previously a parliamentary republic between 1921 and 1934 when the then prime minister Kārlis Ulmanis took power in a coup d'état. In June 1940 Latvia was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.
- Had a transitional government between 2008 and 2015.
- Had a transitional government between 1991 and 2012.
- In June 1940, Lithuania was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.
- Post of President of Russia is created, and development of separation of powers is started, some of Supreme Soviet's executive powers is transferred to new post. Before that, Russia was a Soviet republic.
- Preceded by crisis and armed dissolving of the Supreme Soviet of Russia, then-parliament of the Russian Federation.
References ફેરફાર કરો
- Officially bicameral, upper house never entered into functions, to present day.
- "Malta: Heads of State: 1964-1974". Archontology.org. મૂળ માંથી 8 માર્ચ 2021 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 18 February 2018.
- "British Monarch's Titles: 1867-2018". Archontology.org. મૂળ માંથી 19 ફેબ્રુઆરી 2018 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 18 February 2018.
- "Mauritius: Heads of State: 1968-1992". Archontology.org. મૂળ માંથી 6 ફેબ્રુઆરી 2017 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 18 February 2018.
- Empty citation (મદદ)
- Cahoon, Ben. "Mauritius". Worldstatesmen.org. મૂળ માંથી 15 January 2013 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 18 February 2018.
- Constitution of Nepal સંગ્રહિત ડિસેમ્બર ૨૩, ૨૦૧૫ ના રોજ વેબેક મશિન
- Kiran Khalid, CNN (2010-04-09). "Pakistan lawmakers approve weakening of presidential powers". CNN.com. મેળવેલ 2010-04-14.
- "'18th Amendment to restore Constitution' | Pakistan | News | Newspaper | Daily | English | Online". Nation.com.pk. મૂળ માંથી 2010-04-14 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 2010-04-14.
- "Trinidad and Tobago: Heads of State: 1962-1976". Archontology.org. મૂળ માંથી 2 માર્ચ 2017 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 18 February 2018.
- "South Africa: Heads of State: 1910-1961". Archontology.org. મૂળ માંથી 29 ઑગસ્ટ 2019 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 18 February 2018. Check date values in:
- Carlin, John (31 May 1994). "South Africa returns to the Commonwealth fold". The Independent. મૂળ માંથી 29 ઑગસ્ટ 2019 પર સંગ્રહિત. મેળવેલ 18 February 2018. Check date values in:
- "Secession Talked by Some Anti-Republicans". Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. 11 October 1960. મેળવેલ 18 February 2018. More than one of
|newspaper=specified (મદદ)More than one of